This research theme explores the role of scale, cross-scale interactions, and discontinuities. Scale is a core component of resilience research that refers to both the spatial and temporal dimensions of entities such as systems and processes. Understanding the resilience of systems often requires looking at multiple scales, including scales above and below the focal system. A panarchy extends the concept of multiple interacting scales in a model of linked, hierarchically arranged adaptive cycles that represent cross-scale interactions.
Allen, C.R., D.G. Angeler, A.S. Garmestani, L.H. Gunderson, and C.S. Holling. 2014. Panarchy: Theory and Application. Ecosystems 17(4):578-589. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10021-013-9744-2
Cumming, G.S., P. Olsson, F.S. Chapin III, and C.S. Holling. 2013. Resilience, experimentation, and scale mismatches in social-ecological landscapes. Landscape Ecology 28(6):1139-1150 (doi:10.1007/s10980-012-9725-4). http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10980-012-9725-4
Hughes, T.P., S. Carpenter, J. Rockstrom, M. Scheffer, and B. Walker. 2013. Multiscale regime shifts and planetary boundaries. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 28(7):389-395. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169534713001419
Schoon, M., K. Salau, J. Baggio, and M. Janssen. 2014. Insights for Managers from Modeling Species Interactions across Multiple Scales in an Idealized Landscape. Environmental Modelling and Software 54:53-59. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364815213003137
Keywords: scale, cross-scale interactions, discontinuities, multiple scales, space and time, hierarchy, problem of fit, mismatch, temporal